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It should be stressed that the list below is non-exhaustive.

This is an attempt to excuse the rape or sexual assault and blame the victim.

It assumes that a child or young person who attracts attention by their dress or manner is looking for sex and excuses the behaviour of the abuser.

The activities may involve physical contact, including assault by penetration (for example, rape or oral sex) or non-penetrative acts such as masturbation, kissing, rubbing and touching outside of clothing.

They may also include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, sexual images, watching sexual activities, encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways, or grooming a child in preparation for abuse (including via the internet).

This is an attempt to excuse the abuser of rape or sexual assault and blame the victim.

It assumes that as the child or young person was drunk or under the influence of drugs they were willing sexual partners.

For example, often a case starts with one suspect and one victim in one location but if properly investigated may grow to meet the CSE criteria.'Grooming' is not a specific form of child sexual exploitation but should be seen as a way in which perpetrators target children and manipulate their environments.

It is an approach to exploitation and may be the beginning of a complex process adopted by abusers.

In addition, the trauma can cause feelings of shame and guilt which might inhibit a victim from making a complaint.

This was recognised by the Court of Appeal in [2008] EWCA Crim 2557, where it was held that judges are entitled to direct juries that due to shame and shock, victims of rape might not complain for some time, and that "a late complaint does not necessarily mean it is a false complaint".

It invalidates the experience of the victim and it does not take account of how the victim's relationship may have been influenced by threats whether real or perceived, or how manipulative techniques might have been used by the abuser to intimidate or control the victim.

The grooming process can actively distort understanding of consent and is often used for that purpose.

Anyone who has not yet reached their 18th birthday.

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