Visitors in the Orthodox Jewish cemetery in Budapest, circa 1920 (the word "Orthodox" is painted on the wall, second to the left).
Traditionalist Jews in Hungary were the first anywhere to form an independent Orthodox organization in 1871.
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More than any theoretical issue, obeying the dietary, purity, ethical, and other laws of halakha is the hallmark of Orthodoxy.
Other key doctrines include belief in a future bodily resurrection of the dead, divine reward and punishment for the righteous and the sinners, the Election of Israel as a people bound by a covenant with God, and an eventual reign by a salvific Messiah-King who will restore the Temple in Jerusalem.
"Orthodoxization" was a contingent process, drawing from local circumstances and dependent on the extent of threat sensed by its proponents: a sharply-delineated Orthodox identity appeared in Central Europe, in Germany and Hungary, by the 1860s; a less stark one emerged in Eastern Europe during the Interwar period.
Among the Jews of the Muslim lands, similar processes on a large scale only occurred around the 1970s, after they immigrated to Israel.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of contemporary Judaism.
Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah, both Written and Oral, as literally revealed by God on Mount Sinai and faithfully transmitted ever since.
The word "Orthodox" was borrowed from the general German Enlightenment discourse, and used not to denote a specific religious group, but rather those Jews who opposed Enlightenment.
During the early and mid-19th century, with the advent of the progressive movements among German Jews and especially early Reform Judaism, the title "Orthodox" became the epithet of the traditionalists who espoused conservative positions on the issues raised by modernization.
Orthodoxy is often described as extremely conservative, ossifying a once-dynamic tradition due to the fear of legitimizing change.